# 1D Wasserstein barycenter demo for Unbalanced distributions

This example illustrates the computation of regularized Wassersyein Barycenter as proposed in [10] for Unbalanced inputs.

[10] Chizat, L., Peyré, G., Schmitzer, B., & Vialard, F. X. (2016). Scaling algorithms for unbalanced transport problems. arXiv preprint arXiv:1607.05816.

# Author: Hicham Janati <hicham.janati@inria.fr>
#

# sphinx_gallery_thumbnail_number = 2

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pylab as pl
import ot
# necessary for 3d plot even if not used
from mpl_toolkits.mplot3d import Axes3D  # noqa
from matplotlib.collections import PolyCollection


## Generate data

# parameters

n = 100  # nb bins

# bin positions
x = np.arange(n, dtype=np.float64)

# Gaussian distributions
a1 = ot.datasets.make_1D_gauss(n, m=20, s=5)  # m= mean, s= std
a2 = ot.datasets.make_1D_gauss(n, m=60, s=8)

# make unbalanced dists
a2 *= 3.

# creating matrix A containing all distributions
A = np.vstack((a1, a2)).T
n_distributions = A.shape[1]

# loss matrix + normalization
M = ot.utils.dist0(n)
M /= M.max()


## Plot data

# plot the distributions

pl.figure(1, figsize=(6.4, 3))
for i in range(n_distributions):
pl.plot(x, A[:, i])
pl.title('Distributions')
pl.tight_layout()


## Barycenter computation

# non weighted barycenter computation

weight = 0.5  # 0<=weight<=1
weights = np.array([1 - weight, weight])

# l2bary
bary_l2 = A.dot(weights)

# wasserstein
reg = 1e-3
alpha = 1.

bary_wass = ot.unbalanced.barycenter_unbalanced(A, M, reg, alpha, weights=weights)

pl.figure(2)
pl.clf()
pl.subplot(2, 1, 1)
for i in range(n_distributions):
pl.plot(x, A[:, i])
pl.title('Distributions')

pl.subplot(2, 1, 2)
pl.plot(x, bary_l2, 'r', label='l2')
pl.plot(x, bary_wass, 'g', label='Wasserstein')
pl.legend()
pl.title('Barycenters')
pl.tight_layout()


## Barycentric interpolation

# barycenter interpolation

n_weight = 11
weight_list = np.linspace(0, 1, n_weight)

B_l2 = np.zeros((n, n_weight))

B_wass = np.copy(B_l2)

for i in range(0, n_weight):
weight = weight_list[i]
weights = np.array([1 - weight, weight])
B_l2[:, i] = A.dot(weights)
B_wass[:, i] = ot.unbalanced.barycenter_unbalanced(A, M, reg, alpha, weights=weights)

# plot interpolation

pl.figure(3)

cmap = pl.cm.get_cmap('viridis')
verts = []
zs = weight_list
for i, z in enumerate(zs):
ys = B_l2[:, i]
verts.append(list(zip(x, ys)))

ax = pl.gcf().gca(projection='3d')

poly = PolyCollection(verts, facecolors=[cmap(a) for a in weight_list])
poly.set_alpha(0.7)
ax.set_xlabel('x')
ax.set_xlim3d(0, n)
ax.set_ylabel(r'$\alpha$')
ax.set_ylim3d(0, 1)
ax.set_zlabel('')
ax.set_zlim3d(0, B_l2.max() * 1.01)
pl.title('Barycenter interpolation with l2')
pl.tight_layout()

pl.figure(4)
cmap = pl.cm.get_cmap('viridis')
verts = []
zs = weight_list
for i, z in enumerate(zs):
ys = B_wass[:, i]
verts.append(list(zip(x, ys)))

ax = pl.gcf().gca(projection='3d')

poly = PolyCollection(verts, facecolors=[cmap(a) for a in weight_list])
poly.set_alpha(0.7)
ax.set_xlabel('x')
ax.set_xlim3d(0, n)
ax.set_ylabel(r'$\alpha$')
ax.set_ylim3d(0, 1)
ax.set_zlabel('')
ax.set_zlim3d(0, B_l2.max() * 1.01)
pl.title('Barycenter interpolation with Wasserstein')
pl.tight_layout()

pl.show()


Out:

/home/circleci/project/ot/unbalanced.py:905: RuntimeWarning: overflow encountered in true_divide
u = (A / Kv) ** fi
/home/circleci/project/ot/unbalanced.py:910: RuntimeWarning: invalid value encountered in true_divide
v = (Q / Ktu) ** fi
/home/circleci/project/ot/unbalanced.py:917: UserWarning: Numerical errors at iteration 595
warnings.warn('Numerical errors at iteration %s' % i)
/home/circleci/project/ot/unbalanced.py:910: RuntimeWarning: overflow encountered in true_divide
v = (Q / Ktu) ** fi
/home/circleci/project/ot/unbalanced.py:917: UserWarning: Numerical errors at iteration 974
warnings.warn('Numerical errors at iteration %s' % i)
/home/circleci/project/ot/unbalanced.py:917: UserWarning: Numerical errors at iteration 615
warnings.warn('Numerical errors at iteration %s' % i)
/home/circleci/project/ot/unbalanced.py:917: UserWarning: Numerical errors at iteration 455
warnings.warn('Numerical errors at iteration %s' % i)
/home/circleci/project/ot/unbalanced.py:917: UserWarning: Numerical errors at iteration 361
warnings.warn('Numerical errors at iteration %s' % i)
/home/circleci/project/examples/unbalanced-partial/plot_UOT_barycenter_1D.py:130: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Calling gca() with keyword arguments was deprecated in Matplotlib 3.4. Starting two minor releases later, gca() will take no keyword arguments. The gca() function should only be used to get the current axes, or if no axes exist, create new axes with default keyword arguments. To create a new axes with non-default arguments, use plt.axes() or plt.subplot().
ax = pl.gcf().gca(projection='3d')
/home/circleci/project/examples/unbalanced-partial/plot_UOT_barycenter_1D.py:152: MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: Calling gca() with keyword arguments was deprecated in Matplotlib 3.4. Starting two minor releases later, gca() will take no keyword arguments. The gca() function should only be used to get the current axes, or if no axes exist, create new axes with default keyword arguments. To create a new axes with non-default arguments, use plt.axes() or plt.subplot().
ax = pl.gcf().gca(projection='3d')


Total running time of the script: ( 0 minutes 1.358 seconds)

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